Abiotic factors
8 major islands and more than 100 smaller islands make up a archipelago or chain of islands called the Hawaiian Islands. Most of the world’s ecosystems exist on the Hawaiian Islands. The rain forest is a wet environment that receives more than 100 inches of annual rain fall. Terrestrial ecosystems are classified by their elevation, the amount of moisture, and their dominate life forms. About 350,000 acres of pristine rain forest grows on the big island. Hawaiian rain forest grows at elevations ranging from lowland to montane level. The rain forest has several layers. Hawaii was formed by a volcano. Hawaii’s climate is similar to that of Puerto Rico.


Biotic factors
Plants



Here are some types of plants

‘Ohi‘a (tree)
Forest habitat: canopy found in dry, mesic, and wet forests
Plant use: food for birds, nesting sites, timber, medicine
Interesting facts: Different trees have different colors of flowers: red, yellow or salmon. The flowers secrete large amounts of nectar that birds and insects eat.
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes


Mämane (bush, tree)
Forest habitat: understory found in dry and mesic forests
Plant use: Hawaiian spears, food for birds and insects
Interesting facts: It has golden yellow bean-Iike flowers, which produce very long green seed pods.
Young twigs are silky and hairy.
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes


Naio (tree)
Forest habitat: understory found in dry, mesic, and rain forests
Plant use: birds depend on it for food
Interesting fact: The wood smells somewhat like sandalwood.
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes.



ŸOhelo la‘au (shrub)
Forest Habitat: understory found in mesic and rain forests
Plant use: food for birds and animals, as medicine and to make jelly.
Interesting facts:
Ohelo has small greenish flowers and large bright sour cranberry-Iike fruits. It is related to the blue- berry and cranberry shrubs.
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes



Koa (tree)
Forest Habitat: sub canopy, canopy found in dry, mesic and wet forest
Plant use: furniture, lumber for building, food for birds, medicine, dye.
Interesting facts: Birds and butterflies depend on this tree for food. The leaves of a young tree look very different from that of a mature tree.
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes

ANIMALS
‘Io (Hawaiian Hawk, bird, carnivore)
Forest habitat: forest floor, canopy
Diet: Rodents, small birds, frogs, spiders, large insects, caterpillars, small birds.
Interesting facts: ‘Io can be solid brown to white with dark streaks.
Endangered: Yes
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes
Pueo (Hawaiian Owl, bird, carnivore)
Forest habitat: forest floor, grasslands
Diet: Rodents, insects, small birds.
Interesting facts: Pueo hunt in the morning and evengings rather than at night.
They have feathers on their legs and feet. Their faces are round with a black
mask. They nest on the ground.

Endangered: Yes (only on Oahu)
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes.
Barn Owl (bird, carnivore)
Forest habitat: forest floor, grasslands
Diet: rodents, insects, small birds
Interesting facts: Its white, heart-shaped face distinguishes it from the native
Pueo. It hunts primarily at night. They nest in tree cavities.

Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: No

‘Ope‘ape‘a (Hawaiian Hoary Bat, mammal, insectivore)
Forest Habitat: In trees and rock outcroppings
Diet: beetles, insects, moths, termites, mosquitos.
Interesting facts: The ‘Ope‘ape‘a is grayish-brown with white-tipped fur. The
fur looks like “hoar-frost”, hence its name. They forage for food at dawn and at
dusk. They hang upside down to sleep.

Endangered: Yes
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes

Pupu kuahiwi (Oahu tree snail, herbivore)
Size: Shell length is less than an inch.
Forest Habitat: branches, bark and leaves, forest floor, understory
Diet: Algae and fungi that grow on trees and shrub leaves.
Interesting facts: People once thought these snails sang. They come in many
colors depending on which valley is their home.

Endangered: Yes
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes
‘I‘iwi (Hawaiian honeycreeper, bird, primarily nectivore)
Size: About 5” to 6” long
Forest habitat: Canopy and subcanopy
Diet: Adults drink nectar from Mamane and ‘ohi’a lehua blossoms. The
chicks are fed insects.

Interesting facts: The young have orange-pink skin and a short straight bill.
The adult bill is curved downward so it is very efficient at extracting nectar.

Endangered: Yes
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes

Rats and mice (mammals, omnivores)
Size: body lengths are 2” to 7”
Forest habitat: forest floor, gulches, and grasslands
Diet: Nuts, berries, fruit, seeds, birds, and eggs.
Interesting facts: There are 3 different kinds of rats in Hawai‘i: Black rats,
norway rats, and Polynesian rats and one kind of mouse. Besides fruit and
Other things, rats eat land snails and eggs of native birds. Mice eat seeds of
All kinds including those of rare native plants.

Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: No

‘Akohekohe (Crested Honeycreeper, bird, primarily nectivore)
Size: About 7” long
Forest habitat: canopy and subcanopy
Diet: Primarily nectar from ’ohi’a blossoms and other flowers, some insects.
Interesting facts: It has a distinctive crest of white or golden feathers on its
Forehead...

Endangered: Yes
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes
‘Oma‘o (Hawaiian Thrush, bird, omnivore)
Size: About 7” long
Forest Habitat: canopy, subcanopy, understory
Diet: Primarily fruits, berries, seeds and insects.
Interesting facts: It builds its nest in Koa and ‘Ohi’a trees. Adults will droop their wings and quiver like a baby bird begging for food.
Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes
Palila (bird, primarily herbivore)
Forest habitat: canopy, understory
Diet: Primary food is immature seeds in pods from Mämane trees. It also
eats some insects, Naio berries, and Mämane seed pods
.
Interesting facts: the finch-like bill is suited to open Mämane seed pods.
Endangered: Yes
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes
Axis deer (mammal, herbivore)
Size: 95 to 225 lbs, shoulder height is 30” to 36”
Forest habitat: forest floor
Diet: All kinds of crops, grasses, and shrubs, including native species.
Interesting facts: Eight animals were introduced to Molokai in 1867 as a gift
to Kamehameha V. They are hunted as game today on Molokai, Lanai &
Maui.

Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: No
Mongoose (mammal, omnivore)
Size: Total length is 18” to 26”
Forest habitat: Forest floor
Diet: Birds, eggs, insects, rodents, fruits, berries
Interesting facts: It was introduced to Hawai‘i from India to control rats. But,
Mongoose forage during the day and rats feed at night! They have been
known to climb trees. Found on all islands but Kauai and possibly Lanai.

Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: No

Pua‘a (wild pig, mammal, omnivore)
Size: Adults weight from 150 lbs. To more than 400lbs.
Forest habitat: forest floor
Diet: Favorite foods are earthworms and hapu‘u fern. They also eat roots,
stems, and leaves of shrubs, grasses, snails, insects, ground nesting birds,
and dig up turtle eggs on the Big Island.

Interesting facts: Early Polynesians and Europeans introduced the pua‘a as
a source of food. Too much rooting by a herd causes erosion and destroys
native forests. Found on all islands.

Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: No
Mongoose (mammal, omnivore)
Size: Total length is 18” to 26”
Forest habitat: Forest floor
Diet: Birds, eggs, insects, rodents, fruits, berries
Interesting facts: It was introduced to Hawai‘i from India to control rats. But,
Mongoose forage during the day and rats feed at night! They have been
known to climb trees. Found on all islands but Kauai and possibly Lanai.

Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: No
Feral dog (mammal, carnivore)
Forest Habitat: Forest floor, grasslands
Diet: Game birds, nene, rodents.
Interesting facts: People release pet dogs or lose hunting dogs and they either
die or become feral, causing serious problems for our native wildlife.

Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: No
Pulelehua (Kamehameha butterfly, insect, adult is a nectivore, caterpillar is an
insectivore)

Size: Wingspan is about 2.5 inches
Forest habitat: Canopy, understory
Diet: The butterfly eats sap oozing from tree wounds, especially the Koa tree,
the caterpillar feeds on Mamaki leaves.

Interesting facts: Most active on sunny days. The chrysalis resembles a
curled dead leaf of Mamaki. Young caterpillars roll a leaf and hide within for
protection.

Endangered: Yes
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes

Predatory ceterpillar (inchworm, insect, insectivore)
Size: body length is less then one inch
Forest habitat: forest floor, sub canopy
Diet: flies and other insects
Interesting facts: The caterpillar sits on twigs and small branches waiting in
ambush for insects to approach from the rear. As soon as they touch its back
end, the caterpillar rears back and pounces with its 6 claw-tipped front legs.

Endangered: No (not yet listed on the endangered species list)
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes

Hapu‘u (Hawaiian Tree fern)
Forest Habitat: understory, found in mesic and rain forests
Plant Use: Nesting site for birds, nature’s growing medium for ‘Ohi‘a seedlings,
for pillow and mattress stuffing. Ferns produce spores instead of seeds to reproduce.
They are more primative than flowering plants.

Interesting facts: Hapu‘u produces no flowers, fruits or seeds.
Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: Yes

Mosquito (insect, herbivore)
Forest Habitat: Forest floor to canopy
Diet: Larvae eat minute plants in water.
Interesting facts: Whalers in Lahaina brought “wigglers” (mosquito larvae) to
Hawaii in their water supply. Water containers were knocked over because
they looked “infested.” Adult males eat plant juices. Females drink blood.
Feed early morning and evenings, food for birds, bats.

Endangered: No
Native to Hawai‘i: No


coqui_treefrog.JPG


Threats to the Hawaiian ecosystem
The Coqui tree frog is a big problem because they are very loud and they eat bugs.

One species that has garnered much attention recently is the coqui frog. Its ability to quickly adapt to Hawai'i from its native land, Puerto Rico and reach unprecedented numbers, the absence of predators, and its noisy mating behavior have made the coqui frog the target of government and community eradication and control efforts. The Coqui tree frog has, in the last few years, ingested to many of the native spiders, and as a result the spider population is decreasing and the frogs are just as annoying as ever.
The call of the tree frog is very loud and annoying. The call actually sounds like CO-QUI, hence the name; the call is extremely loud, up to 100 decimals!

The coqui tree frog is not endangered but needs to be! It is considered a pest by many and many say it should be eliminated. The frog itself has no real enemies, (except the people it annoys), and nothing eats it so it has become over populated and IT SHOULD DIE!!!!!!!!!
However, there is no real way to catch all of these flippin’ little pests so; people have resulted to poison and death traps for the froggies.

Conservation plan
To save the Hawaiian ecosystem we must slow down the Coqui tree frog’s population. To do this we should catch as many as possible and relocate them to Puerto Rico. If this happens then the population would slow down. But to keep the population of the frog to a minimum than we would have to find a predator that kills the frog. The predator would keep the frogs population down to a small size so that the ecosystem would be fine. This would keep the frog from over populating and destroying the insect population.

Citation
http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/coqui/index.asp
http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/dofaw/kids/teach/forest%20activity.pdf
http://aphisweb.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/pa_wscoquitfrogs.html
http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/species/frogs/#wheredotheylive
http://flickrcc.bluemountains.net